It should be a relief to many employers (and employees) that their company has just one Board of Directors, with no second House to blockade budgets, freeze operating funds or send large portions of the workforce home. With an estimated 800,000 U.S. government employees originally ‘furloughed’ or required to work without pay (approximately 1/3 the U.S. government’s civilian workforce), employers in Canada may want to take a moment to remind themselves of the constraints they may face when initiating their own temporary lay-offs.
- The ability to lay-off employees is based in statute. As such, an employer’s ability to put employees on temporary lay-off differs depending on the province in which those employees work. In Ontario, for example, employers can lay-off employees on a temporary basis for up to 13 weeks (or longer in some cases). However, in Nova Scotia, by contrast, a temporary lay-off can only last six days or less.
- Lay-offs may turn into terminations. Employers with unionized employees often have a negotiated right to lay-off employees for greater periods of time than would otherwise be allowed under the applicable legislation. Without such extended rights, employers run the risk that their laid-off employees will be deemed to be terminated. Employment standards legislation may grant a grace period to an employer, during which a lay-off will not be considered a termination of employment. However, once that clock runs out, employers are likely to find that they have incurred obligations to laid-off employees for terminating their employment.
- Temporary lay-offs could end up costing more than they save. If a lay-off turns out not to be temporary - either in fact, by operation of statute, or through an employee claiming constructive dismissal - employers will incur the normal notice, termination and severance payment obligations under the relevant statute or at common law. If the lay-off was not genuinely intended to be temporary, employers risk claims for ‘bad faith’ termination and further damages. Outside of sectors where lay-offs are part of the expected business cycle, employers should also consider the reputational and morale costs of using temporary lay-offs to address a downturn in business.
- Employers cannot expect employees to continue to work without pay. Unlike the situation in the U.S. where some government workers continued to report to work without pay but with the political promise to be paid for their work eventually, private sector employers in Canada should not expect employees to continue to show up without pay. Provincial legislation grants employees a right to their pay at regular intervals, and guarantees minimum wages for all work performed. Moreover, failure to pay employees would be a breach of the essence of every employment contract: labour in return for wages. In addition to potential fines under applicable statutes, an employer would risk rupturing their employee relationships and becoming liable for damages for constructive dismissal.
Employers in Canada should consider all their options and use caution when resorting to lay-offs during slow periods. As tempting as the savings may be, there are limits to the ability of many employers to temporarily lay-off employees. Careful consideration of the statutory, contractual and practical limits of this solution is necessary.